Ethiopian Astronomical Society

ABUSAKER: The Ethiopian Book of Mathematics

Addis Ababa, Hamle 30 1962 EC

Under the reign of Haile Sillassie Kings of Kings of Ethiopia Keeper of the Christian Religion

Preface
This mathematics book is named after one of the great professors, ABUSHAKER. However this book not only contains the philosophy of Abushaker but also a collection of all the works of other great thinkers who came after him. This book existed with the name Merha Iwwr and Bahir Hasab and then Abushaker. When all are combined, it is called the book of Mathematics or the book of Mathematical knowledge. The main purpose of the book is to describe, the change of the seasons, the motion of the stars, the sun and the moon, day and night, the months, Awtrare Tsehai, ...

In addition it describes the beginning and the end of fasting, the beginning of the religious celebrations. In ancient times the study of the stars is described in such book of Mathematics. Therefore as the professors become knowledgeable of the heavens, they started giving names to the stars. They could even tell when eclipse occurs. They also explained that darkness occurs when the sun is eclipsed by the star named Aked. Whatever the case may be mathematics has been the starting points for many philosophers. However as times go on the quest for such knowledge required meticulous study and hard work. For this reason many were discouraged to embrace the knowledge of mathematics. In our era this knowledge is being forgotten. Therefore, motivated by such realization, we published the book of mathematics with the hope that for researchers and students use it as a guide.

It is our duty to study the knowledge that the Book of Mathematics provides. The Ethiopian Orthodox Christian Church authorizes every Ethiopian to possesses this book.

In the name of the father , the sun and the holy ghost one god.

We write the book of "sir"Abushaker, authored by the son of Abelhiram, Petros the monk.

Table of Contents

Since the birth of Adam, according to the calendar of Egypt: 7700 years
Alexander 1569 years
Amete tenbalet 755 years
Part one Understanding the debate among the professors: Abushaker discusses celebrations of the Great Lord and the holidays in his name: Without numbers and mathematics

Part Two Lunar Calendar and the Arabs: The length of the lunar year, month, number of days, names of the month, the occurrence of the years,

Part three: Solar Calendar and the Hebrew: Abushaker discusses the length of the year, the months, he length of the year according to lunar calendar, the occurrence of the year.

Part four: Solar and lunar calendars: Abushaker discusses the year, month, the difference between Lunar and Solar Calendar, the names the months and the number of days

Part Five: the calendar of the people of Yona: Abuhaker discusses the years of people of Yona. The calendar of Alexander the son of Philip, the king of Yona, begin with the year the king is anointed.

Part six:: the Calendar of the Romans and Syrians: Abushaker discusses the names of the months, the number of days in each month (What they do before). In addition Abushaker discusses the calendar of Afringa, the months and the days

Part Seven: The calendar of Ferisaw (about Shahren's some Jedajir): The calendar starts with the year the king is anointed

Part Eight: The Calendar of the Kibt from the country of Misr (Egypt): Abushaker discusses the names of the months, the months of our fathers Abrham, Noah, Set and Adam since God (Egi-eez-i ab-her) created them.

Part Nine: Discussion of Part 5: Abushaker discusses part 5 and emphasizes to acquire the basic ideas of part 5. The names can be identified from the beginning and the ends of the numbers.

Part 10: The number of days in a year: Abushaker discusses the differences between the number of days in a year according to different calendars

Part 11: The years of Tenbalat: Abushaker discusses the length of the years of Tenbalat including the months and the days, In addition the errors in Tenbalat years. The sign of their moths has a portion of the moon.

Part 12: Day and Night: Abushaker discusses the order of day and night. Day precedes night. It also discusses the error of the people of Armenia and Syria (as they eat meat on Wednesday and Friday evening).

Part 13: The creation of the Moon and the Sun: Abushaker discusses the creation of the Moon on Wednesday at the first hour of the night 12 hours before the Sun is created in the east. On Wednesday at the first hour of day light the Sun is created. At that time the moon and the sun were face to face.

Part 14: The day the world (universe) is created: Abushaker discusses the first day the universe was created. It discusses the differences between the various calendars

Part 15: The difference between Solar and Lunar Calendar: Abushaker discusses the number of days in each of the two calendars, the number of years since creation. They both declare that the day the universe was created was on Sunday, in Yekatit 10 (??)

Part 16: The days according to the five calendars: Abushaker discusses Lunar Calendar, Solar calendar, Aji Calendar, Meharem Calendar, Arab and Hebrew Calendar. The discussion includes

Part 17: The differences between the number of days: Abushaker discusses the Syrian year, Alexandria, Augusts Caesar and Diokilpianos and Agras.

Part 18: The days according to the seven points of views: Abushaker discusses

Part 19: The differences between the 12 points of views: Abushaker discusses Part 20: The coming of Christ: Abushaker discusses the prophesy of Daniel. It explains the birth, crucifixion and the agreement with AD (amete alem). It discusses the coming of Memadios, the prophesies of Saint John and the coming of Haswi Mesih

Part 21: Jesus Christ lived 33 years and 91 days on Earth: Abushaker discusses as the beginning to be Tuesday and the end is Sunday. That is the Lord was born on a Tuesday and Ascended to heaven on Sunday

Part 22: Jesus Christ: Abushaker discusses the birth of Christ to be on Tuesday and his ascension to heaven in on Sunday

part 23:The Solar Calendar: Abushaker discuses the Solar Calendar and its usefulness

Part 24 The Celebrated Egyptian Year: Abushaker discusses the celebrated Egyptian Year and its length according to Solar Calendar

Part 25 Abekite b Abushaker discusses Abekite and its uses

Part 26: The Egyptian Year according to the Lunar Calendar: Abushaker discusses the length of the Egyptian year according to the Lunar year.

Part 27: Easter and the beginning of lent :Abushaker discusses that the Christians of Misr, Egypt knew about Ester and the beginning of lent. It begins with the Hebrew Easter.

Part 28: the Syrian and Ajim Year: Abushaker discusses the year of Abekite, Easter , the beginning of lent and the sign of the months.

Part 29: Roman Year: Abushaker discusses the roman years, Abekite, Easter and the beginning of lent and the sign of the months

Part 30: Bitrak (the son of Saied) Calender: Abushaker discusses the roman abekite, easter , the beginning of lent and the sign of the months as well as the Hebrew Fisiha, Christian Easter and the bingeing of lent. See part 2.

Part 31: The beginning of daylight: Abushaker discusses the beginning of day light. The Egyptians, the Hebrew, the Christians FISIHA calendar ...

Part 32: The Berdadil Years: Abushaker discusses that the Berdadil years are obsolete and useless...

Part 33: The Hebrew Calendar: Abushaker discusses the Hebrew year and the months. Abushaker also discusses the Arab and Egyptian year. All are known by the numbers

Part 34:The Lunar and Solar Months: Abushaker discusses the Lunar months, the number of days, the names of the months. Abushaker also discusses the Solar months, the names of the moths and the number of days, the end of the Solar Year. He also discusses the beginning (Mebacha) of both Lunar and Solar month

Part 35: Egyptian day and Night: Abushaker discusses the difference between day and night. It discusses the addition of two days of the Tebiban on the Abekite.

Part 36: Rotation of the Sun and Lunar years: Abushaker discusses the rotation of the Solar and Lunar years takes 313 years equivalent to one day.

Part 37: The length of Solar Year: Abushaker discusses the length of Solar year, 365 days and 1/4 day and the significance of the 1/4 day.

Part 38: The Christian holidays, lent, the old and new Testament: Abushaker discusses the Christian holidays, lent, the old and new Testament.

Part 39: Debate on Virginity, the Holy Christmas: Abushaker discusses virginity, the holy Christmas and the day of the Christmas in each year.

Part 40: The Holy Easter: Abushaker discusses the day for the Holy Easter and the 10 rules of celebration

part 41 42, 43,44,45,46,47, 48,49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58,59,

In the name of the kind and forgiving God we begin discussing each part

Part one Understanding the debate among the professors: Abushaker discusses celebrations of the Great Lord and the holidays in his name: Without numbers and mathematics .

Here is the beginning of the book. The person who complied this book is the son of Abelherem Abushaker, says the following for ever.

When I realized the debate among the Christian elite he said the following. The holidays of the Great Lord are the holy Christmas and Easter. Every four years, the Mathematicians of Egyptians and Christians argue over the Solar Year and the cause of the debate was the addition of one day to the Solar year every for year. The four seasons (years) are Metsew, Bega, Tsedey and Winter. Each one has an additional day (every four year). ...

The Egyptian "segir" is ahead of the others. Because of this their seasonal celebrations occur one seger earlier that others and this became the cause of the debate. On the other hand they met ever 95 years to debate on Easter. Before the 95 years they all agree with Ad...They finish the 5 "Awde Kemer" Each Awde Kemer Corresponds to 19 years. When the Abekite of the Sun corresponds to two Abekite of the moon, which is 24 days, the Egyptians could agree if "segre" corresponds to one day, let the 29 days become 30 days and that year the holiday of the Hebrew falls on "senbet", Sunday. The Mizia 10 at dawn on Sunday will be Easter. However those who do not agree will keep the 29 days and the holiday of the Hebrew would fall on Miazia 11 Sunday. They will celebrate the Easter a week later on Sunday on Miazia 18. According to them it will be Hosanna, and they will fast that week. That week will be Easter. This is the cause of their debate for 1013 years of "semaitat"(the heavenly)

It took 7789 years of debate. After I saw and understood the subject of debate, I concluded that the professors must understand each other's culture and philosophy. Each question must be replied with courtesy. In case one fails to answer a question, as mush as possible he must be able to get the truth and try to understand. Each thinks that he know he truth. But God gave us this evidence and he made it easy. May Lord be praised.

The debate is based only 1 segir for Easter. They attribute their deference's to that. On the other hand if one studies numbers it will be clear. Let's see how it can be done. Let's assume that Calendar is like a boundary of land. Calendar is divided into three parts. The past the future and the present. It is then devided into 5 parts. The first one is year (amet) the second one is month (wer), the third one is day, the fourth one is hour (sAt), the fifth one is kekros (second). Kekros is indivisible.

Page 40 and 41: Hour is one part of the 24 kifle-zemen which count day and night together. The night is 12 hours and the day is 12 hours. Sometimes one is greater or less than the other because of the 4 seasons (TSedat, MeTsew, Begana Kiremit)

Day-day light and night together

A day is divided into two. The first one is MeAlt (day light) and the second one is ... The two seasons .. They are different from the first one.

Page 42 and 43: The Arabs, teh Hebrew, many christians, know people of the law: start the "day" at sunset and end when it sets the second time.

On the other hand people who follow the counting (calender) of FELEK, they start at half day (at noon) and end when the sun is at mark (milikit) of FELEK. On the

on the other hand Ajim and Alexander and Christians begin at Tekefile (half sun) Sun and end at the next Tekefile Sun.

Page 43: On the other hand many people are devided about the Lunar Calendar.. Among these people are those who define the length of a lunar day starting from the time when the Sun and the moon are together and ending at the time the two become together again. Among these people there are also those who abandoned the Lunar calendar and adopted the Solar Calendar. They also 12 months and the first door according to the motion of the Sun, with reducing and increasing (the number of days)

Because of this they became different, because of this they had difference of opinion. 


This translation is just a brief introduction of the Ethiopian Book of Mathematics. A lot of work is underway to make the entire work available for the general public. Now you can see that the Ancient Africans have a well developed system to track time, the seasons, the motion of stars and planets. Please send your comments/additional information to Dr. Abebe Kebede

Copyright ©1997 EDLA Ethiopian Distance Learning Association. All Rights Reserved.